Tuesday, June 11, 2013

Quick Review of the ESSENTIALS for U.S. History Regents Exam

Virginia House of Burgesses/Mayflower Compact early democracy, rep govt, consent of the governed
mercantilism colonies produce for British; British regulate trade—colonies make raw materials
“No taxation without representation” British taxes: Tea Act, Stamp Act, etc. colonial responses: boycott, etc.-->war
Declaration of Independence Locke: if govt doesn’t protect natural rightsàoverthrow it (T. Paine/Common Sense)
Articles of Confederation plan of union w/weak central govt.  One success: Northwest Ordinance—plan for new states

Great Compromise big vs. small states over rep in Congressàdeal: bicameral legislature HR by pop, Senate-equal
3/5 Compromise North vs. South over counting of slaves as pop for reps in HR
Federalism power divided btwn nat’l (delegated powers) and state (reserved powers)
Checks and balances 3 branches check each other’s power
Flexibility elastic clause, amendments, judicial review
Bill of Rights 1st 10 amendments, protects rights of individuals, illustrates limited govt
Unwritten Constitution political parties, Cabinet, judicial review
Ratification Federalists vs. Antifederalists; compromiseàadd Bill of Rights

New Nation
Washington’s presidency precedents: Cabinet, two terms, neutrality—Farewell Address
Marshall Court as chief justice, judicial review and power of fed govt. grew—Marbury v. Madison
Louisiana Purchase Jefferson bought it—loose interpretation of Const—got control of Mississippi R. and New Orleans
Andrew Jackson democracy increased, Indian Removal Act, spoils system—jobs to friends
manifest destiny God-given right to expand to Pacific, ex: Mexican War, Texas annexation, Oregon treaty
Monroe Doctrine Europe must stop colonizing Latin America
Civil War
Sectionalism people have loyalty to North or South more than USA
Abolitionism abolish slavery; examples: Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, Harriet Beecher Stowe
Dred Scott decision slaves are property so all territories must permit slavery
Lincoln’s election Republican presidentàSouth secedesàCivil War
Lincoln’s goal for war preserve and protect the Union
Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in Confederacy, made abolition a goal of war

13th Amendment abolished slavery
black codes result of Presidential Reconstruction—lenient, take away blacks’ rights
14th Amendment equal protection of laws, birthright citizenship
15th Amendment blacks’ right to vote
Andrew Johnson lenient on South, impeached but found not guilty in Senate trial
Compromise of 1877 Hayes became president; Reconstruction ended
Plessy v. Ferguson separate but equal is constitutional—permitted Jim Crow laws
Westward Expansion
Homestead Act U.S. gave free land in West to farmers
transcontinental railroad improved trade, govt helped pay for it, leads to monopolies
Grangers farmers who demand regulated railroad rates
Interstate Commerce Act regulates railroad rates
Dawes Act forced assimilation of Native Americans (cut up reservations into family plots)

monopoly/trust corporation/group that takes over an industry and prevents competition
robber baron ex: Rockefeller, Carnegie—monopolists who used unfair business practices to be successful
urbanization growth of cities because of factory jobs, immigration, poor farming options
labor unions improve working conditions, demand higher pay, govt sides with business against them in late 1800s
laissez-faire economics govt doesn’t get involved in business
muckraker journalists who expose problems in society e.g. Upton Sinclair, Jacob Riis, Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens
Sherman Antitrust Act law that broke up trusts; TR used it for trustbusting
referendum/recall/initiative growth in democracy (also 17th Amendment: direct election of Senators)
progressive income tax richer get taxed at a higher rate—16th Amendment
19th Amendment women’s suffrage—right to vote (result of Seneca Falls Convention, Susan B. Anthony)

Reasons for imperialism desire for raw materials and new markets
yellow journalism exaggerated news, led to S-A War, inaccurate reporting of sinking of U.S.S. Maine
Spanish-American War imperialistic war; U.S. got Cuba, PR, Philippines, Guam
Roosevelt Corollary/big-stick diplomacy US will intervene in Latin America; corollary to Monroe Doctrine
Panama Canal Roosevelt Corollary used to help Panama gain independence, easier to get from East Coast to Asia

World War I
freedom of the seas U.S. opposed Germany’s unrestricted sub warfare (U-Boat) and sinking of LusitaniaàUS entered war
Schenck v. U.S. draft protester arrested—SC said free speech can be limited when it poses clear and present danger to USA
Fourteen Points Woodrow Wilson’s plan for lasting peace, including League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles made Germany pay for WWI, included League of Nations, Senate rejected it (isolationism)

Roaring Twenties
Quota Acts Red Scare and nativism lead to limits on immigration
Great Migration/Harlem Renaissance blacks moved to north, displayed culture e.g. L. Hughes, D. Ellington
flapper independent women, rejecting tradition, new style
Prohibition WCTU opposed alcohol, 18th Amendment, results: organized crime, rejection of unpopular moral law (21st repeals it)
Scopes trial tradition vs. modernity—should evolution be taught in schools?
consumer goods new appliances, assembly line, cars improved economy

Great Depression
buying on margin buying stocks on credit; among many risky financial actions; led to stock market crash
Hooverville Pres. Hoover blamed for homelessness—he refused to use fed govt to solve problem
Dust Bowl drought in Midwest/Great Plains; led to worse depression and migration to California
New Deal FDR’s plan included Relief, Recovery, Reform
Social Security payments for elderly and unemployed
FDIC insured bank deposits; prevented bank failures and bank runs
court packing FDR wanted to add supportive justices to SC; threat to checks and balances; didn’t happen
legacies fed govt provides for people’s welfare, deficit spending accepted, fed govt grows in power

World War II
Neutrality ActsàLend-Lease Act shift from U.S. neutrality to support for democratic allies (e.g. Great Britain)
Korematsu v. U.S. Pearl Harbor leads to US fear of Japanese, J-A interned, SC says it’s okay in time of war
war bonds/rationing/victory gardens support from home for WW2
Manhattan Project project to create atomic bombàTruman dropped it on Japan to save American lives and end WW2

Cold War
containment U.S. foreign policy: stop spread of communism
examples of aid 1940s: Marshall Plan, Truman Doctrine, Berlin Airlift, Eisenhower Doctrine        ALSO: NATO—alliance
Korean War 1951-53 UN involved, war not declared by Congress, contain communism in Asia
Cuban Missile Crisis after Bay of Pigs failed to overthrow Castro, USSR put nukes in Cuba, close to nuclear war, JFK blockaded Cuba to keep more weapons from getting in 1962
Vietnam War 1963-73 contain communism in SE Asia, war not declared by Congress, unpopular
détente ease tensions with communist governments—Nixon 1970s
end of the Cold War fall of Berlin Wall, breakup of USSR

GI Bill aid to veterans for education and housing
baby boom after delay in marriage due to WW2 and GD, people had babies
suburbanization move to suburbs because of highways, cars, desire for home ownership
Interstate Highway Act Eisenhower’s govt paid for highways for nat’l security, more suburbanization
McCarthyism fear of communism led to invasion of civil liberties (also: loyalty review boards, HUAC)
Sputnik Soviet satellite leads to space race, more US funding for science and math
Great Society LBJ’s plan to end poverty, included Medicare and Medicaid

Civil Rights Movement
Treatment of blacks segregation, Jim Crow, literacy tests, poll taxes, grandfather clause, sharecropping
Brown v. Board school segregation unconstitutional, reversed Plessy v. Ferguson, argued by NAACP
civil disobedience MLK, sit-ins, Freedom Rides, Montgomery Bus Boycott, March on Washington
Civil Rights Act of 1964 bans Jim Crow
Voting Rights Act of 1965 banned literacy tests
24th Amendment banned poll taxes

War Powers Act at end of Vietnam War, Congress said president needs permission to send troops overseas longterm
Watergate burglary at DNC HQ led to Nixon cover-up and lies, U.S. v. Nixon said no man is above the law, Nixon resigned, people lost confidence in govt leaders
OPEC oil embargo 1973, 1979 OPEC refused to sell oil to USA to protest treatment of Israel, inflation, recession
Camp David Accords peace in Middle East, Pres. Carter deal between Israel and Egypt
Reaganomics less regulation and less taxes on rich/corpsàbetter economy, more wealth inequality

Current Events: Foreign Policy
Persian Gulf War war against Iraq to insure steady supply of oil (Saddam had invaded Kuwait)
Bosnian War fought to stop human rights abuses—ethnic cleansing/genocide
9/11 al-Qaeda attacked WTC and Pentagon
Results of 9/11 Dept of Homeland Security, PATRIOT Act limits civil liberties, wars
Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan to fight Islamic terrorism and keep Iraq from getting weapons of mass destruction

Current Events
Move to the Sunbelt Americans move Southàmore political power in South
Aging of baby boomers Cost of Social Security and Medicare roseàled to growth in national debt
Clinton impeachment impeached for perjury, found not guilty in Senate
2000 presidential election Gore won popular vote but Bush won electoral vote; Supreme Court helped decide
Technology development more computers, Internetàloss of privacy

Current Events: Economics
corporate downsizing corporations send jobs overseas
shift to a service economy less manufacturing jobs
NAFTA free trade—globalization—lower tariffs
trade imbalance with Japan and China, US imports more than it exports

2008 economic crisis led to greater federal involvement in economy

No comments:

Post a Comment